Predictive Control - A simple and Powerful Method of Control Power Converters and Drives Part II

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Predictive Control - A simple and Powerful Method of Control Power Converters and Drives Part II

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Instructors: Ralph Kennel, Technische Universitat Munche, Germany, Jose Rodriguez, Federico Santa Maria Technical University, Chile., M. Kazmierkowski, University of Technology, Poland This tutorial provides a fundamentally different perspective to control of switching power electronic systems. It is based on controlling the time evolution of the switching states (i.e., switching sequences) as well as controlling the switching transition of the power semiconductor device of the solid state electronic system. The former ? i.e., switching-sequence based control (SBC) yields rapid response under transient condition, optimal equilibrium response, and yields seamless transition between the two states of dynamics. The first part of the tutorial will primarily focus on SBC for power electronics systems. By enabling integration of modulation and control, SBC precludes the need for ad-hoc offline modulation synthesis. In other words, an optimal switching sequence for the power converter is generated dynamically without the need for prior determination of a modulation scheme (which generates a pre-determined switching sequence) in typical conventional approaches. One of the distinctions between SBC and conventional model predictive control (MPC) is that SBC ensure optimal determination of the switching sequence of the power converter under stability bound. The tutorial will provide the mechanism to carry out SBC and MPC control syntheses and demonstrate the differences between SBC and MPC. Several device, converter, and network level implementations (e.g., motor drive, multilevel converter, microgrid, parallel inverters, aircraft power system) of the SBC will be provided. The second part of the tutorial reviews control and modulation methods that fully exploit the performance potential of high-power converters, by ensuring fast control at very low switching frequencies and low harmonic distortions. To achieve this, the control and modulation problem is addressed in one computational stage. To this end, the benefits of deadbeat control methods (such as direct torque control) are combined with the optimal steady-state performance of optimized pulse patterns, by resolving the antagonism between the two. As a result, the current harmonic distortions and the switching losses can be reduced simultaneously, when compared to carrierbased PWM. Indeed, at low switching frequencies, the resulting steady-state behavior is similar to that of optimized pulse patterns. During transients, however, very fast current and torque response times are achieved, similar to deadbeat control. To this end, two control and modulation methods will be presented. First, a direct MPC with long prediction horizons. Using a branch and bound technique, the optimization problem can be solved efficiently for long prediction horizons. Large performance benefits result for converters with LC filters, which do not require an additional active damping loop. This formulation generalizes the well-known finite control set MPC formulation. Second, a fast closed-loop control based on optimized pulse patterns will be provided. Experimental results on a five-level medium-voltage drive will be demonstrated. Finally, the tutorial will focus on switching transition control (STC). The primary objective of STC is to demonstrate how key power electronic system parameters including dv/dt and di/dt stress, switching loss, electromagnetic noise emission can be controlled dynamically by modulating the dynamics of the power semiconductor devices. Both electrical and newly developed optical control mechanisms to achieve STC will be demonstrated. In the context of the latter, mechanisms for monolithic integration of switching sequence control as well as switching transition control will be outlined and the revolutionary impact of such a novel integration on system performance will be demonstrated with practical applications.
Instructors: Ralph Kennel, Technische Universitat Munche, Germany, Jose Rodriguez, Federico Santa Maria Technical University, Chile., M. Kazmierkowski, University of Technology, Poland This tutorial provides a fundamentally different perspective to control of switching power electronic systems. It is based on controlling the time evolution of the switching states (i.e., switching sequences) as well as controlling the switching transition of the power semiconductor device of the solid state electronic system. The former ? i.e., switching-sequence based control (SBC) yields rapid response under transient condition, optimal equilibrium response, and yields seamless transition between the two states of dynamics. The first part of the tutorial will primarily focus on SBC for power electronics systems. By enabling integration of modulation and control, SBC precludes the need for ad-hoc offline modulation synthesis. In other words, an optimal switching sequence for the power converter is generated dynamically without the need for prior determination of a modulation scheme (which generates a pre-determined switching sequence) in typical conventional approaches. One of the distinctions between SBC and conventional model predictive control (MPC) is that SBC ensure optimal determination of the switching sequence of the power converter under stability bound. The tutorial will provide the mechanism to carry out SBC and MPC control syntheses and demonstrate the differences between SBC and MPC. Several device, converter, and network level implementations (e.g., motor drive, multilevel converter, microgrid, parallel inverters, aircraft power system) of the SBC will be provided. The second part of the tutorial reviews control and modulation methods that fully exploit the performance potential of high-power converters, by ensuring fast control at very low switching frequencies and low harmonic distortions. To achieve this, the control and modulation problem is addressed in one computational stage. To this end, the benefits of deadbeat control methods (such as direct torque control) are combined with the optimal steady-state performance of optimized pulse patterns, by resolving the antagonism between the two. As a result, the current harmonic distortions and the switching losses can be reduced simultaneously, when compared to carrierbased PWM. Indeed, at low switching frequencies, the resulting steady-state behavior is similar to that of optimized pulse patterns. During transients, however, very fast current and torque response times are achieved, similar to deadbeat control. To this end, two control and modulation methods will be presented. First, a direct MPC with long prediction horizons. Using a branch and bound technique, the optimization problem can be solved efficiently for long prediction horizons. Large performance benefits result for converters with LC filters, which do not require an additional active damping loop. This formulation generalizes the well-known finite control set MPC formulation. Second, a fast closed-loop control based on optimized pulse patterns will be provided. Experimental results on a five-level medium-voltage drive will be demonstrated. Finally, the tutorial will focus on switching transition control (STC). The primary objective of STC is to demonstrate how key power electronic system parameters including dv/dt and di/dt stress, switching loss, electromagnetic noise emission can be controlled dynamically by modulating the dynamics of the power semiconductor devices. Both electrical and newly developed optical control mechanisms to achieve STC will be demonstrated. In the context of the latter, mechanisms for monolithic integration of switching sequence control as well as switching transition control will be outlined and the revolutionary impact of such a novel integration on system performance will be demonstrated with practical applications.